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Articles and Book Chapters

  • "How to Save Democracy From Technology: Ending Big Tech’s Information Monopoly," (with Barak Richman, and Ashish Goel) Foreign Affairs 100(1), January/February 2021
  • "Demography Is Not Destiny," American Purpose (23 Nov 2020)
  • “The Pandemic and Political Order,” Foreign Affairs 99(4), June-July 2020.
  • "Responding to COVID-19 Through Surveys of Public Servants," (with Christian Schuster, Lauren Weitzman, Kim Sass Mikkelsen, Jan Meyer-Sehling, Katherine Bersch, Dinsha Mistree, Patricia Paskov, Daniel Rogger, and Kerenssa Kay) Public Administration Review :  (2020).
  • “The Wages of American Political Decay," The American Interest 15 (May 2020).
  • “What Would a Second Trump Term Do to the Federal Bureaucracy?” Washington Monthly (Ap-My-Jn 2020).
  • "30 Years of World Politics: What Has Changed?" Journal of Democracy 31 (Jan. 2020): 11-21.
  • Why National Identity Matters,” Journal of Democracy 29 (Oct. 2018): 5-15.
  • Against Identity Politics," Foreign Affairs 97 (no. 5, Sept-Oct. 2018): 90-115.
  • “Civil Society and Political Society,” in Debra Erikson, and Michael Le Chevallier, Jean Bethke Elshtain: Politics, Ethics, and Society (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2018).
  • The Last English Civil War,” Daedalus 147 (no. 1, Winter 2018): 15:24.
  • "The Populist Surge," The American Interest 13 (Mar-Ap, 2018): 16-18
  • Review of Masha Gessen, The Future is History, New York Times Book Review, Oct. 3, 2017

  • America: The Failed State,” Prospect Magazine (Dec. 13, 2016).

  • What is Corruption?” in Against Corruption, with a forward by David Camerson (London: Crown, 2016). 
  • American Political Decay or Renewal? The Meaning of the 2016 Election,” Foreign Affairs 95(4) 58-68.
  • Too Much Law and Too Little Infrastructure,” The American Interest 12(3), Nov-Dec 2016. 
  • Macro Theory and the Study of Political Development,” Scandinavian Political Studies May 2016. 
  • Governance:  What Do We Know, and How Do We Know It?”  Annual Review of Political Science 19: 89-105 2016.
  • "Reflections on Chinese Governance," Journal of Chinese Governance Vol. 1, Iss. 3, 2016.
  • "A More Systematic Approach to Biological Risk," with Megan Palmer and David Relman, Science350 Issue 6267, 18 December 2015.
  • "Why is Democracy Performing so Poorly?"Journal of Democracy 26(1), Jan. 2015
  • "States and Democracy," Democratization 21(7), 2014: 1326-40.
  • "Agency or Inevitability: Will Human Beings Control Their Technological Future?" in Mads Rosenthal, ed., The Posthuman Condition (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 2012).
  • Revew of Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson, Why Nations Fail.
  • "What is Governance?" Center for Global Development Working Paper No. 314, Jan. 2013. Published also in Governance 26(3), 2013: 347-368,
  • "The Patterns of History"," Journal of Democracy 23(1), Jan. 2012.
  • "The Future of History," Foreign Affairs 91(1), Jan-Feb 2012.
  •  "Is There a Proper Sequence in Democratic Transitions?" Current History (Nov. 2011). 
  • "American Political Dysfunction," The American Interest 7, no. 2 (Nov.-Dec. 2011).
  • "National Identity, American and Otherwise," in Michael Boss, ed., Narrating Peoplehood amidst Diversity (Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press, 2011).
  •  "Dealing with Inequality,"  Journal of Democracy 22 no. 3 (July 2011).
  • "Political Order in Egypt," The American Interest Vol. 6, no. 5 (May-June 2011).
  • "The Post-Washington Consensus," Foreign Affairs 90, no. 2 (March-April 2011).
  •  "Left Out," The American Interest Vol. 6 no. 3 (Jan.-Feb.2011). 
  • "Development Strategies: Integrating Governance and Growth," with Brian Levy, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 5196, Jan. 2010.
  • "Transitions to the Rule of Law," Journal of Democracy 21, no. 1(Jan. 2010).
  • "What Were They Thinking," with Seth Colby, The American Interest 5, no. 1 (Sept.-Oct. 2009).
  • "Reconceptualizing Democracies and Empowering Them to Deliver," in Alexander T. J. Lennon, ed., Democracy in U.S. Security Strategy: From Promotion to Support (Washington,DC: CSIS, 2009).
  • "International Institutional Transfer," in Kenneth A. Reinert and Ramkishen S. Rajan, eds., The Princeton Encyclopedia of the World Economy (Princeton University Press, 2009).
  • "Challenges to World Order after September 11," in I. William Zartman, ed., Imbalance of Power: US Hegemony and International Order (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009).
  • "State-Building in SolomonIslands," Pacific Economic Bulletin 23 (No. 3, 2008).
  • "The Latin American Experience," Journal of Democracy 19 (October 2008).
  • "Soft Talk, Big Stick," in Melvyn Leffler and Jeffrey Legro, eds., To Lead the World: American Strategy After the Bush Doctrine (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).
  • "Development and the Limits of Institutional Design," in Natalia Dinello and Vladimir Popov, eds., Political Institutions and Development: Failed Expectations and Renewed Hopes (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2007).
  • "Should Democracy be Promoted or Demoted?" (with Michael McFaul), Washington Quarterly 31(1), 2007.
  • "A Quiet Revolution"(review essay of Michael Reid, Forgotten Continent: The Battle for Latin America's Soul), Foreign Affairs (Nov.-Dec. 2007).
  • "A Proposal for Modernizing the Regulation of Human Biotechnologies" (with Franco Furger), Hastings Center Report 37(no. 7, July-August 2007).
  • "Liberalism versus State-Building," Journal of Democracy 18 (No. 3, July 2007).
  • Forward to Eduardo Lora, ed., The State of State Reform in Latin America (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press/IDB,2007).
  • "Identity, Immigration, and Liberal Democracy"(the 2005 Seymour Martin Lipset Lecture), Journal of Democracy (vol. 17, no. 2, April 2006).
  • Forward to the new paperback edition of Samuel P. Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006).
  • Response to the symposium on the Bush Doctrine,Commentary 100 (no. 11), Nov. 2005.
  • Response to the symposium on "The Sources of American Conduct," The American Interest (vol. 1, no. 1, Fall 2005).
  • "Still Disenchanted? The Modernity of Postindustrial Capitalism,"in Victor Nee and Richard Swedberg, eds., The Economic Sociology of Capitalism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005).
  • "Fighting the War on Terrorism," in Norton Garfinkle and Daniel Yankelovich, eds., Uniting America: Restoring the Vital Center to American Democracy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005).
  • "Human Biomedicine and the Problem of Governance," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (no. 2, Spring2005).
  • "Facing the Perils of Presidentialism?" (with Björn Dressel and Boo-Seung Chang) Journal of Democracy 16 (no. 2, April2005).
  • "Economic, Political, and Cultural Consequences of Changes in Generational Relations," in Mary Ann Glendon, ed., Intergenerational Solidarity, Welfare and Human Ecology (Vatican City: Proceedings of the Tenth Plenary Session of the Pontifical Academy of the Social Science, 2005).
  • "‘Stateness' First," Journal of Democracy(Vol. 16, no 1, Jan. 2005).
  • "Re-Envisioning Asia," Foreign Affairs (vol 84, no. 1, Jan-Feb. 2005).
  • "Does ‘the West' Still Exist?" in Tod Lindberg, ed., Beyond Paradise and Power: Europe, America, and the Future of a Troubled Partnership (New York: Routledge, 2004).
  • "Why There is No Science of Public Administration," Journal of International Affairs 58, no. 1 (Fall2004).
  • "Transhumanism," Foreign Policy (September-October2004).
  • "The Neoconservative Moment," The National Interest (no. 76, Summer 2004).
  • "The Imperative of State-Building," Journal of Democracy 15 no. 2, April 2004.
  • "Nation-Building 101," The Atlantic Monthly 293 (Jan.-Feb. 2004).
  • "Has History Restarted Since September 11? (The Nineteenth Annual John Bonython Lecture)", Centre for Independent Studies Occasional Paper no. 81, August 2002.
  • "Social Capital and Development: The Coming Agenda," SAIS Review 21, (Winter-Spring 2002).
  • "Can Any Good Come of Radical Islam?"(with N. Samin), Commentary 114 (Sept.-Oct. 2002).
  • "Holes in Our Gene Policy," Bloomberg Personal Finance (Sept. 2002).
  • "In Defense of Nature, Human and Non-Human," World Watch Magazine (July-August 2002): 30-32.
  • "The Ground and Nature of Human Rights"(with William Schulz and Robin Fox), The National Interest no. 68 (Summer 2002).
  • "Gene Regime," Foreign Policy (March-April 2002).
  • "Life, but Not as We Know It," New Scientist (April 20, 2002).
  • "How to Regulate Science," The Public Interest, no. 146 (Winter 2002).
  • "Culture and Economic Development," in N. J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, eds., International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (Oxford: Pergamon, 2001).
  • "The Limits of Liberal Democracy," in Joel Krieger, ed., The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (OxfordUniversity Press, 2001).
  • "Differing Disciplinary Perspectives on the Origins of Trust," Boston University Law Review 81 (No. 3, June 2001).
  • "Natural Rights and Human History," The National Interest no. 64 (Summer 2001).
  • "Social Capital, Civil Society, and Development," Third World Quarterly 22 (no. 1, 2001).
  • "Comparing East Asia and Latin America: Dimensions of Development" (with Sanjay Marwah), Journal of Democracy, October 2000. Reprinted in Laurence Whitehead, ed., Emerging Market Democracies: East Asia and Latin America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002). A longer unpublished version of this paper exists as "Economic and Political development in east asia and latin america: discerning differences".
  • "Social Capital," in Lawrence Harrison and Samuel P. Huntington, eds., Culture Matters, Basic Books, 2000.
  • "Don't Do It, Britannia," Prospect, May2000. (Essay and review of Tom Nairn, After Britain.)
  • "Der unprogrammierte Unmensch," in Die Gegenwart der Zukunft (Berlin: Verlag Klaus Wagenbach, 2000).
  • "Social Capital and Civil Society," IMF Working Paper WP/00/74, April 2000.
  • Comment on "American Power-For What?" Commentary, January 2000.
  • "Asian Values, Korean Values, and Democratic Consolidation," in L. Diamond and D. C. Shin, eds., Institutional Reform and Democratic Consolidation in Korea (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 2000).
  • "The March of Equality," Journal of Democracy 11 (January 2000).
  • "Military Organization in the Information Age: Lessons from the World of Business" (with A. N. Shulsky) in Zalmay Khalilzad and John P. White, eds., The Changing Role of Information Warfare (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1999).
  • "The Politics of Women," in Sian Griffiths, ed., Predictions: 30 Great Minds on the Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
  • "Asian Values in the Wake of the Asian Crisis," The Review of Korean Studies 2, Sept. 1999.
  • "How to Remoralize America," The Wilson Quarterly, July 1999.
  • "Asian Values and the Current Crisis," Development Outreach 1, no. 1, Summer 1999.
  • "Second Thoughts: The Last Man in a Bottle," The National Interest, Summer 1999.
  • "The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order," The Atlantic Monthly, May1999.
  • "Women and the Evolution of World Politics," Foreign Affairs 77 no. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1998).
  • Response to Sebastian Mallaby, The National Interest (Summer 1998).
  • "Falling Tide: Global Trends and US Civil Society," Harvard International Review 20, no. 1(Winter 1997-98).
  • "Asian Values and the Asian Crisis, " Commentary (February 1998).
  • "Is It All In the Genes?" Commentary (September 1997).
  • Comment on "Is There a Worldwide Conservative Crackup?" The Weekly Standard (Aug.25-Sept. 1, 1997).
  • "The Illusion of Exceptionalism," Journal of Democracy, July 1997.
  • Comment on "The Future of Conservatism," Commentary, February 1997.
  • "Trust Still Counts in a Virtual World," Forbes ASAP, Dec. 2, 1996.
  • Comment on "The National Prospect," Commentary, November 1995.
  • "Social Capital and the Global Economy," Foreign Affairs 74 no. 5 (Sept./Oct.1995).
  • "On the Possibility of Writing a Universal History," in Arthur M. Melzer, Jerry Weinberger, and M. Richard Zinman, eds., History and the Idea of Progress (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press,1995).
  • "Virtue and Prosperity," National Interest, No. 40 (Summer 1995).
  • "Immigration," in Lamar Alexander and Chester E. Finn, Jr., eds., The New Promise of American Life (Indianapolis, IN: Hudson Institute, 1995).
  • "Confucianism and Democracy," Journal of Democracy, Vol. 6, no. 2(April 1995).
  • "The Primacy of Culture," Journal of Democracy, Vol. 6, no. 1 (Jan. 1995).
  • "Die Zukunft des Krieges" ("The Future of War"), Frankfurter Allgemeine Magazin, no. 772, Dec. 16, 1994.
  • "Reflections on 'The End of History' Five Years Later," in Timothy Burns, ed., After History: Francis Fukuyama and His Critics (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1994).
  • "Against the New Pessimism," Commentary, Vol. 96. no. 2, February 1994.
  • "Great Planes," The New Republic, September6, 1993.
  • "Immigrants and Family Values," Commentary, Vol. 95, no. 5, May 1993.
  • "The Modernizing Imperative," The National Interest, No. 31, Spring 1993.
  • "Neyasnost' Natsional'nogo Interessa (The Ambiguity of National Interest)," Nezavisimaya Gazeta (Moscow), October 16, 1992; published also in S. Sestanovich, ed., Rethinking Russia's National Interests (Washington: CSIS, 1994). .
  • Comment on Ghia Nodia, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 3, no. 4, October 1992.
  • Commenton Stankevich, The National Interest,No. 28, 1992.
  • "The Beginning of Foreign Policy," The New Republic, August 17 and 14,1992.
  • "Capitalism and Democracy: The Missing Link," Journal of Democracy, Vol. 3, no. 3, July 1992.
  • Comment on "Is America on the WayDown?" Commentary, May 1992.
  • "Democratization and International Security,"in New Dimensions in International Security, Adelphi Paper No. 266, London, International Institute for Strategic Studies.
  • "Liberal Democracy as a Global Phenomenon," Political Science, December 1991.
  • "The Next South Africa," The National Interest, No. 18, Summer 1991.
  • "A Reply to My Critics," The National Interest, No.16, Winter 1989-90.
  • "The End of History?" The National Interest, Summer 1989.
  • "Discord or Cooperation in the Third World?" in Coping with Gorbachev's Soviet Union, Washington, D.C., CSIS Significant Issues Series, Vol. X, No. 9, 1988.
  • "The Political Character of the Overseas Empire," in Henry Rowen and Charles Wolf, eds, The Future of the Soviet Empire (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987).
  • "Soviet Military Power in the Middle East; or, Whatever Became of Power Projection?" in S. Spiegel, M. Heller, and J. Goldberg, eds., The Soviet-American Competition in the Middle East (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1987).
  • "The Cycles of Soviet Third World Policy," Problems of Communism, September -October 1987.
  • "Asia in a Global War," Comparative Strategy, Vol. 6, no.4, 1987.
  • "A Systematic Soviet Strategy for the Third World?" in Dennis Bark ed., The Red Orchestra, Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1986 (also published as RAND P-6965, February 1984).
  • "Gorbachev and the Third World," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 64, no.4, Spring, 1986.
  • "Soviet Experience with Cooperative Forces," in Charles Wolf and Katherine Watkins, eds., Developing Cooperative Forces in the Third World, Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1986 (also published as RAND N-2325-USDP, June 1985).
  • "Military Aspects of the U.S.-Soviet Competition in the Third World," in Marshall D. Shulman, ed., East-West Tensions in the Third World, Norton, 1986 (also published as RAND P-7164, 1985).
  • "The Rise and Fall of the Marxist-Leninist Vanguard Party," Survey, Vol. 29, No.2, Summer 1985.
  • "U.S.-Soviet Interactions in the Third World," in Arnold L. Horelick, ed., U.S.-SovietRelations: The Next Phase, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1986 (also published as RAND OPS-004, March1985).
  • "The New Marxist Leninist States and Internal Conflict in the Third World," in Uri Ra'anan et. al., Third World Marxist-Leninist Regimes: Strengths, Vulnerabilities, and U.S. Policy, Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis Special Report, September 1985 (also published as RAND P-7020,1984).
  • "Escalation in the Middle East and Persian Gulf," in Graham Allison, Albert Carnesale, and Joseph Nye (eds.), Hawks, Doves, and Owls, Norton, 1985 (also published as RAND P-7021, September 1984).
  • "New Directions for Soviet Middle East Policy: Implications for the Atlantic Alliance," in Steven L. Spiegel, ed., The Middle East and the Western Alliance, George Allen and Unwin, 1982 (also published as RAND P-6443, February 1980).
  • "Pakistan Since the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan," in Shirin Tahir-Kheli, ed., U.S. Strategic Interests in Southwest Asia, Praeger, 1982.
  • "The USSR and the Middle East," Middle East Contemporary Survey, Vol. IV, 1981 (with A.S. Becker).
  • The Security of Pakistan: A Trip Report, RAND Corporation N-1584-RC, September 1980.
  • The Future of the Soviet Role in Afghanistan: A Trip Report, RAND Corporation N-1579-RC, September 1980.
  • The Soviet Union and Iraq Since 1968, RAND Corporation N-1524-AF, July 1980.
  • "Nuclear Shadowboxing: Soviet Intervention Threats in the Middle East," Orbis, Fall 1981 (alsopublished as RAND N-1577-FF, June 1980).
  • "A New Soviet Strategy," Commentary, October 1979.
  • The Soviet Threat to the Persian Gulf, RAND Corporation P-6596, March 1981.
  • "Egypt and Israel After Camp David," Current History, January 1979 (with Steven J. Rosen).


Reviews and Miscellaneous

Political Science Quarterly:

  • Rajan Menon, Soviet Power and the Third World, Summer, 1987.

The Journal of Democracy:

  • Mark Juergensmeyer, A New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State, October 1993
  • Jørgen Møller, The Medieval Roots of Democracy, June 2015

The New Republic:

  • Gregory Treverton, Covert Action, December 21, 1987.
  • Joel Kotkin, Tribes, April 19, 1993
  • Tony Smith, America's Mission, Feb. 6, 1995.

Times Literary Supplement:

  • Max Singer and Aaron Wildavsky, The Real World Order, Nov. 30, 1993.
  • Ernest Gellner, Conditions of Liberty, Oct. 28, 1994.
  • Elie Kedourie, Hegel and Marx: Introductory Lectures, Sept.29, 1995.
  • Immanuel Wallerstein, After Liberalism; John Gray, Enlightenment's Wake; Steven Kautz, Liberalism and Community, May 10, 1996.
  • Deepak Lal, Unintended Consequences: The Impact of Factor Endowments, Culture, and Politics on Long-run Economic Performance, June 18, 1999.

New York Times Book Review:

  • Michael Ignatieff, Blood and Belonging, April 10, 1994.
  • Hans Magnus Enzensberger, Civil Wars: From LA to Bosnia, Oct. 9,1994.
  • Charles Reich, Opposing the System, Nov. 26, 1995.
  • Roy Beck, The Case Against Immigration; Chilton Williamson, The Immigration Mystique, Sept. 1, 1996.
  • Derek Bok, The State of the Nation: Government and the Quest for a Better Society, Feb. 2, 1997.
  • James Chace, Acheson: The Secretary of State who Created the American World, August 23, 1998.
  • Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire, July 25, 2004.
  • "The American Way of Secrecy," retrospective review of Edward Shils, The Torment of Secrecy, and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Secrecy, Oct. 8, 2006.
  • Samantha Power, Chasing the Flame: Sergio Vieira de Mello and the Fight to Save the World, Feb. 17,2008.
  • Matthew B. Crawford, Shopcraft as Soulcraft: An Inquiry into the Value of Work, June7, 2009.
  • Julian Young, Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography, April 29, 2010.
  • Friedrich A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty: The Definitive Edition, May 6, 2011.
  • Tony Judt with Timothy Snyder, Thinking the Twentieth Century, Feb. 5, 2012.

The American Interest:

  • "L'Enfant's Washington" (review of four books on PierreCharles L'Enfant), May-June 2007.

The Wall Street Journal:

  • Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Nov. 7, 1996.
  • Danielle Crittenden, What Our Mothers Didn't Tell Us, Jan. 26, 1999.
  • Susan Faludi, Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man, Sept.24, 1999.
  • Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate, Sept. 26, 2002.
  • Jared Diamond, Collapse, Jan. 7, 2005.

The Financial Times:

  • Philip Bobbitt, The Garments of Court and Palace: Machiavelli and the World that He Made, July 5, 2013.
  • Robert Putnam, Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis, March 6, 2015.


  • Robert D. Kaplan, The Ends of the Earth, April 1996.
  • Stephanie Gutmann, The Kinder, Gentler Military, February 2000.
  • George Gilder, Telecosm, October 2000.
  • Paul R. Ehrlich, Human Natures, February 2001.
  • Timothy Garten Ash, Free World, Dec. 2004.

The Weekly Standard:

  • William Greider, One World, Ready or Not: The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism, Jan. 27, 1997.
  • Neal Stephenson, Snow Crash and The Diamond Age, April 21, 1997.

The New Statesman:

  • Thomas Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, July 5, 1999.

The Washington Times:

  • Adam Seligman, The Problem of Trust, Oct.19, 1997.

The Washington Post:

  • Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, May 28, 2000.

The Wilson Quarterly:

  • Robert Wright, Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny, Winter 2000.
  • BruceCaldwell, Hayek's Challenge, Spring 2004.

Wired Magazine:

  • Jane Jacobs, Dark Age Ahead, May 2004.

  • Samuel Huntington, Who Are We? Challenges to America's National Identity, June 4, 2004.
  • Bruce Bawer, While Europe Slept; Tony Blankley, The West's Last Chance; Pat Buchanan, The Death of the West, Feb. 27, 2006.
  • Wangari Maathai, The Challenge for Africa; Dambisa Moyo, Dead Aid, May 4, 2009.

The National Interest:

  • Thomas Sowell, Race and Culture, Winter 1994.
  • Daniel Bell, The Coming of Postindustrial Society, Special Anniversary Edition, Winter 1999.

The Public Interest:

  • James Nolan, The Therapeutic Society,Summer 1998.
  • Charles Griswold, Adam Smith and the Virtues of Enlightenment, Summer 1999.

The Economist Book Review:

  • Peter Huber, Orwell's Revenge: The 1984 Palimpsest, Feb.1995.

National Review:

  • Peter Brimelow, Alien Nation: Common Sense About America's Immigration Disaster, May 1995.

American Spectator:

  • Robert F. Byrnes, ed., After Brezhnev
  • Andrew Cockburn, The Threat
  • James Fallows, National Defense
  • Curtis Cate, The Ides of August
  • Nadav Safran, Israel: The Embattled Ally

Papers on Melanesia

These papers were written following visits to Timor Leste, Papua New Guinea, Indonesian Papua, and the Solomon Islands in 2006-2008, supported by the World Bank. The views expressed here are my own and do not reflect those of the World Bank.